DPI's Bureau of Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology (the botany section is included in this bureau) produces TRI-OLOGY six times a year, covering two months of activity in each issue. The report includes detection activities from nursery plant inspections, routine and emergency program surveys, and requests for identification of plants and pests from the public. Samples are also occasionally sent from other states or countries for identification or diagnosis.
The mission of the Division of Plant Industry is to protect Florida's native and commercially grown plants and the State's apiary industry from harmful pests and diseases. Perhaps you'd been interested in learning more about why protecting Florida's agriculture industry is so important. Agriculture contributes almost $100 billion to the state's economy, and there are many environmental factors that can reduce the industry's productivity. By protecting agriculture, DPI helps protect the state's food supply and economic stability. Just how much does DPI protect? Check out these numbers:
Total cash receipts for Florida nursery and greenhouse products were almost $2 billion in 2008. Sales for fresh market vegetables reached more than $1.3 billion, with production on 183,100 acres in 2009. During the 2008-2009 growing season, Florida citrus growers produced 162.4 million boxes of oranges and 21.7 million boxes of grapefruit. Greenhouse and nursery products generate more cash receipts than any other Florida commodity, with the more well-known citrus coming in second. Floriculture and horticulture products make up a large majority of Florida's exports.
From Mediterranean fruit fly eradiation to nursery inspections, DPI protects Florida's plant and apiary industries from pests and diseases, and therefore protects the state's economy. For more information, visit
Dr. Wayne N. Dixon, editor
Assistant Director, DPI
Following are a few of the notable entries from this volume of TRI-OLOGY. These entries are reports of interesting plants or unusual pests, some of which may be problematic. See Section Reports for complete information.
Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Bowditch), giant African land snail, a regulatory incident. A population of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Bowditch), giant African land snail (GALS), was brought to the attention of DPI by Miami area homeowners in early September 2011. The discovery of this international pest initiated an eradication program that has resulted in the delimitation of 13 localized populations in Miami-Dade County to date. GALS feed on over 500 species of plants, damage stucco and plaster walls, may carry parasitic nematodes that pose health problems for humans, and have tremendously high rates of reproduction and growth.
Tenuipalpus crassulus, a tenuipalpid mite, a Western Hemisphere record. This species was described from specimens intercepted at Washington, D.C. quarantine on Crassula mucosa from Holland in 1959. This mite was not reported again until it was found at a nursery in Orange County causing severe damage on Sedum sp., Echeveria sp. and Aloe sp. The species identification could not be confirmed until specimens were compared with type material in the United States National Museum in October. The mite feeding caused severe damage to the stems and leaves of Sedum and Echeveria. On Aloe, mite feeding caused large necrotic spots on the leaves.
Calacarus flagelliseta, an eriophyid mite, a Continental USA record. This species was described from specimens collected from Carica papaya (papaya) in Brazil. Mite feeding was reported to cause leaf edge rolling and leaf necrosis. In both February and November 2008, a few specimens of an unidentifiable eriophyid were collected from papaya in Broward and Miami-Dade counties. In September 2011, eriophyid mites identified as C. flagelliseta were collected from a papaya in Miami-Dade County. The original specimens from 2008 were reexamined and confirmed to be C. flagelliseta.
Pharoscymnus flexibilis, a Continental USA record. This is an Indian species that has been recorded from Brazil, but not from North America. It is a generalist predator.
Cercospora tuberosa (leaf spot), an uncommon leaf spot, was found on Apios tuberosa, a showy, flowering vine with edible, tuberous roots.
Cordia globosa (Curaçao bush, bloodberry, butterfly sage) The common name "bloodberry" might suggest the red, ovoid to oblong red fruit or it could be based on the medicinal uses of the plant as a blood tonic. Several biologically active chemicals have been found within the genus, including antiviral, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agents. The name "butterfly sage" has come into use with the increase in home butterfly gardens and the appearance of this species in them. In the wild, this species is endangered in Florida.
Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirshamann, 1988, the Guava root-knot nematode, was found infecting the roots of Ilex × meserveae (blue holly), a new host species for this nematode.
The editors would like to acknowledge the work of all those who contributed information and explanations by providing data, photographs or text and by carefully reading early drafts. We also thank Scott Weinberg for his skillful use of web authoring tools to produce this report.